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This kind of clever work and reporting! Keep up the fantastic works guys I've incorporated you guys to my own blogroll. I'm using the same blog platform as yours and I'm having problems finding one? Rausky, Franklin. Mesmer ou la révolution thérapeutique. Paris; Payot, Rosen George. Schneider, Emil. Der animale Magnetismus. Seine Geschichte und seine Beziehungen zur Heilkunst. Zurich: Konrad Lampert, Schott, Heinz.
Zum therapeutischen Konzept von Franz Anton Mesmer — Schott, Heinz ed. Franz Anton Mesmer und die Geschichte des Mesmerismus. Schroeder, H. Geschichte des Lebensmagnetismus und des Hypnotismus. Vom Uranfang bis auf den heutigen Tag. Leipzig: Arwed Strauch, Shepard, Leslie A. New York: Avon, The Society for Psychical Research. Tatar, Maria M. Spellbound: Studies on Mesmerism and Literature. Tinterow, Maurice. Foundations of Hypnosis From Mesmer to Freud. Springfield, Illinois: Charles C.
Thomas, Tischner, Rudolf. Geschichte der okkultistischen metapsychischen Forschung von der Antike bis zur Gegenwart. Teil: Von der Mitte des Jahrhunderts bis zur Gegenwart. Leben, Werk und Wirkungen. Munich: Münchner Drucke, Tischner, Rudolf and Bittel, Karl. Mesmer und sein Problem: Magnetismus—Suggestion—Hypnose. Usteri, Paul. Specimen bibliothecae criticae magnetismi sic dicti animalis.
Gottingen: Joannes Christ. Dieterich, Wyckoff, James. Between God and Devil. Wygrant, Larry J. The Truman G. Blocker, Jr. History of Medicine Collections: Books and Manuscripts. Galveston: University of Texas Medical Branch, Dissertatio physico-medica de planetarum influxu.
Vienna: Ghelen,48 pp. Translated and edited by George Bloch. The first published writing of Franz Anton Mesmer is a dissertation presented to the University of Vienna medical school for the degree of doctor of medicine. Although there is no record of what Mesmer studied in the years from tothe rest of his education is known, and there is little reason to think he attained a degree during that hiatus. Mesmer came to Vienna in to study at the university. After one year in law, he began a six-year program in the medical school, finishing with this dissertation.
At the very beginning of the thesis Mesmer states that he is attempting to continue the work of Richard Mead — who wrote about the influence of the stars on men. Mesmer emphasizes that he is not talking about an astrological understanding of that influence, but a purely physical, scientific one.
After a general discussion of the laws of planetary motion, centrifugal force, and gravitation, he writes of his notion that there must be tides in the atmosphere just as there are in the ocean.
Mesmer then presents his own original ideas. He says that just as there are tides in the sea and the atmosphere, so also there are tides in the human body. There is, he asserts, a universal gravitation by which our bodies are affected. Through this influence emanating from the stars, our bodies are caused to resonate in a harmonious fashion. This fact, says Mesmer, must be taken seriously by medical practitioners, for if human bodies are violently shaken by the action of celestial bodies, then understanding the nature of that influence is of utmost importance.
Unpartheyischer Bericht der allhier gemachten Entdeckungen der sonderbaren Würkung der kunstlichen Stahlmagneten in verschiedenen Nervenkrankheiten.
Vienna: n. Gedruckte Antwort des Herrn Dr Mesmer vom Januar Apparently the treatise first appeared in a Viennese periodical and then as a separate pamphlet. Now it can only be found in the Sammlung der neuesten gedruckten und geschriebenen Nachrichten see entry number 9. Hell claimed that the cures ascribed by Mesmer to animal magnetism were really due to the action of magnets. In his response, Mesmer not only reasserts that animal magnetism was the cause, he also denies that magnets are of any use in treating illness.
Herrn Dr Mesmers Schreiben an die Frankfurter vom Mai A letter on magnetism addressed to the inhabitants of Frankfort. It can be found today only in the Sammlung der neuesten gedruckten und geschriebenen Nachrichten see entry number 9. Schreiben über die Magnetkur von Herrn. Mesmer, Doktor der Arzneygelahrtheit, an einen auswartigen Arzt. Mesmer, Doctor of Medicine at Vienna to A. Written on January 5,to Doctor Johann Christoph Unzer of Altona, this treatise appeared as a pamphlet and was then immediately published in the Neuer gelehrter Mercurius edited by Unzer.
He distinguishes animal magnetism from mineral magnetism, but at the same time shows the analogy between the two. An edition of this work published in has an important addition: a section titled Anhang von einigen Briefen und Nachrichten. This appendix contains excerpts from letters describing cures performed by Mesmer and ascribed to animal magnetism.
Beschreibung eines mit dem kunstlichen Magneten angestellten medicinischen Versuchs. Hamburg: Herold,pp. The results were good, and he wrote this favorable opinion of the medical use of magnets. Schreiben den Thier. Magnetismus u. Prague: n. Klinkosch included the alleged cures through exorcism performed by Gassner and those carried out by Mesmer using animal magnetism in the same category.
He considered them to be false and delusory and argued that if any such cures occurred, it must be through electricity rather than magnetism. There are questions about both authorship and date. Amadou believes it a genuine piece by Mesmer, while Frank Pattie has his doubts.
Sammlung der neuesten gedruckten und geschriebenen Nachrichten von Magnet-Curen, vorzüglich der Mesmerischen.
A collection of journal articles and polemical pamphlets written by Mesmer, Hell and others about the nature and efficacy of magnetic healing. For some of those writings this is the only remaining source. Mesmer himself acknowledged the accuracy of the reproductions in this collection.
Mémoire sur la découverte du magnétisme animal. A foundational work in the history of modern psychology. Having experimented with iron magnets to treat illnesses, Mesmer came to the conclusion that the human body itself is a magnet and that the physician, using his own body magnetically, can produce the most effective cures. To promote his discovery, Mesmer moved in to Paris, which was the intellectual center of the Europe of his day.
His Parisian clinic claimed many remarkable cures. This dramatic success and the Mémoire of caused his fame to spread quickly throughout France. Mesmer considered himself above all a physician and a scientist. According to Mesmer, there exists in nature a universal agent which, through as yet unknown laws, produces a mutual influence among the heavenly bodies, the earth, and living things.
When this agent is observed operating in living organisms, it is seen to have properties of attraction similar to those of the magnet, even exhibiting polarity. He uses the magnetic power of his own body to influence the ebb and flow of magnetic fluid in that of his patient, restoring the natural balance of animal magnetic currents and thus aiding nature in the cure of disease.
Mesmer states that in this way animal magnetism can cure nervous disorders directly and other disorders indirectly.
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Although Mesmer lived and wrote untilhe never significantly altered the outline of his theory as it is presented in the Mémoire of It resulted in their demand that he give up his involvement with the practice of animal magnetism. Observations sur le magnétisme animal. This book was his major opus on animal magnetism in which he describes his first exposure to animal magnetism and how he became convinced of its efficacy.
He knew this from his own experience, having been cured by Mesmer of a life-long ailment. Vienna and Paris: L. Delalain le jeune,16 pp. In this booklet he criticizes the animal magnetic fluid of Mesmer, claiming it is simply an electro-magnetic influence. Paulet, a botanist and physician who was strongly opposed to animal magnetism, was editor of the Gazette de Santé. In the reviews, Paulet makes some extravagant claims against Mesmer and animal magnetism.
The Hague: n. Bergasse was a lawyer, philosopher, and political theorist from Lyons. In he was successfully treated by Mesmer and became his devoted follower.
In this letter he declares his belief in the efficacy of the cures performed by Mesmer and condemns the closed attitude of orthodox medicine. Lettre à M. Mesmer, et autre pièces concernant la maladie de mademoiselle de Berlancourt de Beauvais. Beauvais: P. Desjardins,15 pp. An important early testimony of a cure by Mesmer with independent witnesses. The condition and cure paralysis of part of the body of a young woman are described in some detail.
Précis historique des faits relatifs au magnétisme animal jusques en Avril London: n. This collection of documents and comments was translated into French from an outline written by Mesmer in German. The original outline was later destroyed and the German version of this work published in was a translation from the French edition.
The work attempts to give a history of animal magnetism to date by reproducing and commenting on important relevant documents. The history of animal magnetism is divided into five time periods: 1 dealings with the Faculty of Medicine at Vienna, 2 dealings with the Academy of Sciences at Paris, 3 dealings with the Royal Society of Medicine at Paris, 4 various activities in the two years following, and 5 dealings with the Faculty of Medicine at Paris.
Mesmer uses the documentation format to reiterate his views and emphasize his side in the various disputes in which he had been involved. A study of the use of the divining rod and its effectiveness in discovering hidden sources of water.
Thouvenel recalls the tradition of magnetic medicine and the theories of earlier writers concerning a universal magnetic force which accounts for such mysterious powers. The similarities between these ideas of Thouvenel and those of Mesmer are, however, striking. Observation très-importante sur les effets du magnétisme animal. Paris: P. Gueffier,28 pp. Lettre de M. Philip, docteur en médecine, doyen de la Faculté.
Geneva: B. Chirol and E. An extremely rare book which contains, among other things, the original of a small treatise by Mesmer entitled: Discourse sur le magnétisme. Philip, doyen de la Faculté de Médecine de Paris. London and Aix-la-Chapelle: n. Lettre sur le secret de M. Paris: Méquignon,22 pp.
However, he does admit that cures have been brought about through its application. This work is an extract from the Mémoires of the Société royale de médecine for the year The authors describe the medical uses of magnets, beginning with a history of the subject.
They then take up contemporary practitioners who use magnets to heal, including Franz Anton Mesmer. Inhowever, Thouret revised his view, becoming very critical of animal magnetism in his Recherches et doutesentry number Rapport sur les aimons présentés par M. Pierres,pp. Grande belle découverte du magnétisme animal. This pamphlet consists of a letter from Mesmer to a Doctor Philip with comments added by Bacher.
Court de Gébelin was one of the most highly respected intellectuals of his day. His monumental nine-volume Monde primitif — was a virtual encyclopedia of studies in comparative linguistics.
He passionately appeals for a serious study of that system and indicates the directions that study might take. Court de Gébelin had long sought to unearth the outlines of a primitive science present in the great cultures of the west.
In animal magnetism he believed he had discovered the true basis for that science. Paris: Imprimerie Royale,15 pp. Presented as a courtesy to the members of the Academy of Sciences which had been commissioned by the king to investigate animal magnetism. This brief report was intended to give them an account of some of the experiences which the commissioners had during their investigation.
It is considerably shorter than the official report see entry number Paris: Imprimerie Royale,66 pp. In the spring of the King of France appointed this commission made up of members of the Academy of Sciences to investigate the claims of animal magnetism.
He chose some of the most eminent men of science of his day. The chairman was Benjamin Franklin —a founding father of the United States of America, ambassador of that country to France, and a person highly knowledgeable in electricity and terrestrial magnetism.
The secretary of the commission and editor of its report was the famous astronomer Jean Sylvain Bailly — The commission also included the director of the Academy of Sciences, Jean Baptiste Leroy —an investigator of electricity of some note.
The fifth member of the commission was the physician de Bory, about which nothing is known today. The commission began its investigations on March 12,and published its report in August of that year. They contended that theory made no difference to their mandate, which was to decide about the existence and utility of animal magnetism.
Their conclusion was that they found no evidence for the existence of an animal magnetic fluid. Rapport secret présenté au ministre et signé par la commission précédente. This secret report by the Franklin commission was not published at the time of the public report. It was presented privately to the King of France and appeared for the first time in print in see entry number A summary of cures through animal magnetism attested to by the magnetizer that performed them or by the patient who had been cured.
The cures were in many cases not described with the detail needed to judge the effectiveness of the treatment. La maçonnerie mesmérienne, ou leçons prononcées par Fr.
Amsterdam: n. The pronouncement of a group of Bordeaux freemasons concerning their views on mesmerism. They were at first orthodox members of the Bordeaux Lodge of Harmony founded to teach animal magnetism. However, in they broke away for a brief period, but were soon returned to the fold.
Les docteurs modernes, comédie-parade en un acte et en vaudeville, suivie du Banquet de santé, divertissement analogue mêlé de couplets représentée pour la première fois à Paris par les comédiens italiens ordinaires du Roy, le mardi 16 Novembre Paris: Brunet,59 pp.
Two plays staged in Paris in Banquet de santé continues the theme. Mesmer, par M. Bergasse avec des pensées sur le mouvement, par M. Bergasse, along with Kornmann, helped Mesmer found the Society of Harmony of Paris, the first of many which would take on members for a fee to teach them the doctrine and techniques of animal magnetism.
Bergasse delivered lectures to the members of the Paris Society, and these lectures were distilled into the content of the present book. Bergasse and Mesmer had their disagreements and although in Considérations Bergasse vigorously defends Mesmer against all attacks, divergences of doctrine do nevertheless appear.
Within a year after the publication of the book, Mesmer and Bergasse publicly ended their association. Paris: Gastellier,24 pp. A satirical work written by Bergasse and published anonymously. It is aimed at those physicians who condemned animal magnetism.
Théorie du monde et des êtres organisés suivant les principes de M. Paris: n. Composed in a format that reminds one of certain alchemical texts, the work presents text and symbols according to a code that only the initiated could understand. Procédés du magnétisme animal. The work of an experienced magnetizer who was influenced by the work of Puységur.
Attributed to the physician Bombay, the book contains descriptions of the use of physical objects as repositories of magnetism which can be used to treat the ill. In this category are trees, tubs of water, and the baquet as devised by Mesmer.
The author tells how to impart magnetic fluid to these objects. The preeminent magnetizer of Lyon at the time of the report of the Franklin Commission, the physician Bonnefoy strongly criticized the report using, among other things, arguments drawn from the electrical science of the day.
Lettres de M. Geneva and Paris: Couturier,87 pp. Thouret, intitulé: Doutes et recherches. Brussels: n. Written by the physician Bouvier of Versailles, the work defends the reality of animal magnetism and its effectiveness as a cure. Bouvier himself used animal magnetism successfully in his medical practice. Vienna and Paris: Royez,32 pp. Brack was a physician who wrote a number of pamphlets against Mesmer and animal magnetism.
In this work he provides interesting information about the foundation of magnetic Societies of Harmony in Paris and the provinces. Madrid and Paris: n. One of a number of pamphlets written by the physician Brack against animal magnetism. The first edition of this work is not known to be extant and reference to a Spanish original seems to be a literary fiction. Brissot, a French revolutionary, social critic and theoretician, believed that animal magnetism could serve as a means of achieving social reform.
In this work, among other things, he writes of how animal magnetism could make the rich more human and concerned about the poor. Written by an antiquarian and supporter of Mesmer. Détail des cures opérées à Buzancy, près Soissons par le magnétisme animal. Soissons: n. An important and very rare document in the history of animal magnetism that contains, among other items, a letter written by a M.
Cloquet describing in detail the induction of artificial somnambulism by the Marquis de Puységur. The treatise also contains a letter written by Puységur to Bergasse, a letter written by the Rev. Gérard, Superior General of the Order of Charity, a brief description by Puységur of 62 cures performed through animal magnetism at Buzancy, and a description of a cure performed by Mesmer on the son of the banker Kornmann.
Dampierre was a theologian, magistrate, and president of the parliament of Bourgogne. A member of the mystical Lyons school of freemasons, he developed a philosophy of animal magnetism that viewed it as an aid to the healing and social evolution taking place according to hidden laws of nature. The second type of crisis is that produced by suggestive individuals, when being magnetized, through imitation and the action of imagination—this being a useless and even harmful type of crisis.
The third type is the crisis produced through fear upon seeing another person in the throes of a violent crisis—this also being a harmful type of crisis. The fourth type of crisis is that creme anti ride efficace bebe confort by the action of animal magnetism in susceptible persons who have a strong desire to remain in the state of crisis—this type being dangerous to the patient.
Since none of these crises leads, with the possible exception of the first, to a fruitful conclusion, Dampierre and his colleagues at Lyons sought an alternate, positive healing crisis. Dampierre believed that the crises most often produced by animal magnetism as practiced by those who used the techniques of Mesmer were of the harmful type described.
He considered these crises to be embarrassing and obscene for the patient and narcissistically flattering for the magnetizer. This approach could produce magnetic somnambulism with the attendant apparently paranormal phenomena first noted by the Marquis de Puységur q. This Lyons brand of Freemason animal magnetism was as such strongly oriented towards the occult worldview of the magical tradition of the West. Observations sur les deux rapports de MM.
A critique of the report of the commissioners charged with examining animal magnetism. He condemns their prohibition of the practice of animal magnetism and says it is unenforceable. Paris : n. Devillers was a member of the very active lodge of Freemasons of Lyon. When its members took sides on the issue of animal magnetism inhe supported the opposition. He attempts to show that the power of imagination is sufficient explanation.
Charles Joseph Devillers should not be confused with Charles de Villers — who wrote a novel in entitled Le magnétiseur amoureux see entry number Traité théorique et pratique du magnétisme animal. Turin: Jean Michel Briolo,80 pp. He held a somewhat unusual attitude toward magnetism: he believed magnetism was an important medical tool and used it himself, but was not sure that it was all that the theory claimed to be.
Remarques sur la conduite du sieur Mesmer et de son commis le P. The purpose of this pamphlet is to destroy the credibility of Hervier and his cure by Mesmer through animal magnetism. Éprémesnil scattered the leaflet into the audience during a performance. A second statement on the part of Éprémesnil supporting Mesmer in face of the jibes of the play Les docteurs modernes see entry number Like the first leaflet, this one was tossed to the audience during a performance. Glasgow and Paris: Prault,27 pp.
Court de Gébelin, en réponse à celle que ce savant a adressée à ses souscripteurs et dans laquelle il fait un éloge triomphant du magnétisme animal.
Bordeaux: Bergeret,69 pp. A letter addressed to Court de Gébelin about his supposed illness and cure through animal magnetism.
The author, a physician of Paris, states that it was very likely that Court de Gébelin had not been ill at all, but if he had been ill, then it was the healing power of nature itself, not animal magnetism, that had cured him. The letter also contains a number of criticisms of the way animal magnetism was being practiced in Paris.
Essai sur la découverte du magnétisme animal. Bailly avec celles de M. Paris and Philadelphia: Pierre J. In the first part of this defence of Mesmer and animal magnetism, Gallert de Montjoie tries to find points of rapprochement between Mesmer and the astronomer Bailly.
He then compares the ideas of Mesmer to those of Descartes and Newton, siding with Newton against Bailly in his view of matter and motion. In the second part, Gallert de Montjoie takes up the report of the Franklin commission, devoting considerable space to the issue of the place of the imagination in the action of animal magnetism. He examines the place of the will in the action of the magnetic fluid, stating that it is principally by the will that the fluid is directed and that it is involved in magnetization at a distance.
Eclaircissements sur le magnétisme actuel. A treatise on animal magnetism by a man who experimented with electricity as a medical aid. He accepted the reality of the effects of animal magnetism, but believed that imagination was probably the principal cause.
Paris: Bouillon,24 pp. A letter in favor of animal magnetism. Some scholars attribute this pamphlet to Sébastien Gérardin. Mémoire en réponse au rapport de MM. Morlaix: n. Aperçu sur le magnétisme animal ou résultats des observations faites à Lyon sur ce nouvel agent. Geneva: n. Gilbert was a highly reputable physician and professor of medicine. Among other things he was known for his opposition to all forms of quackery in medicine, having written extensively on the subject.
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In this treatise he attests to the genuineness of the healing effects of animal magnetism, which he had repeatedly witnessed with regime amaigrissant 2013 gratuit own eyes.
However, as a strong believer in the healing powers of nature, he is sympathetic with the practice of animal magnetism.
Observations adressées à Mrs. Par un médecin de province. London and Paris: Royez,36 pp. Observations adressées à messieurs les commissaires de la Société royale de médecine, nommés par le Roi.
Par un médecin de P—. Pour servir de suite à celles qui ont été adressées sur le même objet à MM. A second set of comments continuing observations started in the first see entry number Le baquet magnétique, comédie en vers et en deux actes. London and Paris: Gastellier,pp. Lettre du père Hervier aux habitants de Bordeaux. Lettre sur la découverte du magnétisme animal à M. Court de Gébelin.
Hervier expresses his enthusiasm for animal magnetism, the result of the healing that it had accomplished for him personally. This letter provides a detailed description of the illness and treatment.
Paris: Veuve Harissart,51 pp. Jussieu strongly disagreed with the conclusions of the principal report which followed the investigation of animal magnetism by the Société Royale de Médecine in He stated his own views in this treatise.
He distinguished four different kinds of facts observed by the commissioners concerning animal magnetism: the first were those general positive effects about which it was not possible to come to any conclusions as to cause; the second were those which were negative, showing only the non-action of the alleged magnetic fluid; the third were effects, either positive or negative, which could be attributed to the work of the imagination; and the fourth were those positive effects that could only be explained through the action of some unknown agent.
Jussieu concluded that although the existence of a magnetic fluid had not been proven, there were enough effects of the fourth kind to justify the continued use of animal magnetism and further investigations of the exact nature of those effects.
Le magnétisme animal dévoilé par un zélé citoyen français. A denunciation of Mesmer and animal magnetism by a man Mesmer failed to cure.
La Grezie states his belief that magnetizers simply harm their clients. He also presents his own theory of the possibility of communicating electrical fluid from one person to another.
London and Paris: n. Because of his appreciation for the technique, he wants to make it known to the public. Examen sérieux et impartial du magnétisme animal. A booklet attributed to the physician Mahon. He writes in favor of animal magnetism, and states that if his fellow physicians look into the matter seriously, they will find much of value there for their medical practice.
Mesmer et quelquefois mieux. Paris and Philadelphia: n. Paris: N. Méquignon,pp. A treatise in which the author mentions animal magnetism in the context of a discussion of medical applications of electricity. Apologie de M. Mesmer à M. Originally appearing in the journals of the day, this letter is found in the Recueil des pièces les plus intéressantes sur le magnétisme animal see entry number Mesmer denies such dependency, stating that Thouret builds his case largely on the writings of Maxwell, whom Mesmer had not even read and whose doctrine is in any case very different from that of Mesmer.
Mesmer à messieurs les auteurs du Journal de Paris, et à M. Letters to the editors of the Journal de Paris and to Benjamin Franklin, head of the commission appointed by the king to investigate animal magnetism. He asserts that history will be the judge of the worth of his discovery. Mesmer, à M. The text of the agreement is given.
Recueil des pièces les plus interessantes sur le magnétisme animal. An important collection of works written on the subject of animal magnetism by Mesmer and others. Court de Gébelin entry number 77 ; Détail des cures opérées à Buzancy près Soissons par le magnétisme animal entry number 47 ; and many others. This letter supports the views of Hervier expressed in his Lettre sur la découverte du magnétisme animal see entry number Lettre sur le magnétisme animal adressée à M.
An unusual document written by a Christian magnetizer. Moulinié was the pastor of a church and an extremely effective practitioner of animal magnetism. His mere presence seemed to be enough to heal some people, and the poor were often the beneficiaries of his magnetic power. He mentions use of the technique of fixation of the eyes to produce a convulsion and closure of the eyelids.
Détail des cures opérées à Dietetique haricot vert nain par le magnétisme animal, selon les principes de M. Lyon: Faucheux,27 pp. Orelut begins with a letter to Mesmer telling him that when he Orelut arrived in Lyon he found the city to be in a state of excitement about animal magnetism and the cures being attributed to it. The author then describes in some detail the nature of the cases treated and the positive effects produced.
Discours sur le magnétisme animal lu dans une assemblée du Collége des médecins de Lyon le 15 septembre Dublin: n. A well-written treatise arguing against animal magnetism.
This is one of the most important and intelligent of the early critiques of animal magnetism. It includes a famous engraved frontispiece depicting Mesmer drawing magnetic fluid from the heavens and conferring it upon the ill. Mesmer blessé ou réponse à la lettre du P. Hervier sur le magnétisme animal. London and Paris: Couturier,34 pp.
Paulet sets out to convince Hervier that his cure by Mesmer was not remarkable, because he Hervier had not been truly ill in the first place. A farcical piece which makes fun of Mesmer and his practices by pretending to give serious instructions about how to use animal magnetism, while really mocking the whole procedure. Autres rêveries sur le magnétisme animal à un académicien de province.
La Mesmériade, ou le triomphe du magnétisme animal. Poème en 3 chants dédié à la lune. Geneva and Paris: Couturier,15 pp. This satirical piece is attributed to Doctor Philip, dean of the faculty of medicine at Paris at the time when it carried out its investigation of animal magnetism.
Paris: Imprimerie royale,39 pp. This report was compiled by a commission of the Royal Society of Medicine set up by the king to investigate the claims of animal magnetism. This commission was constituted at approximately the same time as a second commission The Franklin Commissionalso appointed by the king, made up of nine eminent scientists from the Academy of Sciences.
The commission of the Royal Society of Medicine began its investigations on April 5, The findings of this commission condemned animal magnetism. Hampered by a lack of scientific method and a surfeit of theoretical dogmatism, however, its report proved to be far less significant than that of the Franklin commission.
Suite de la correspondance de Monsieur Pressavin gradué etc. Massage ayurvédique perte de poids ww cures opérées par le magnétisme animal.
A work of great significance for the history of modern psychology. Puységur was an artillery officer in the army, a colonel of the regiment of Strasbourg. A member of an old and distinguished family, he had inherited a large property in Buzancy near Soissons and spent most bnc regime micro ou reel his time there looking after his land and occasionally carrying out experiments with electricity.
Having heard about animal magnetism and its marvelous curative powers, he went to Paris to learn from Mesmer. Returning to his estate at Buzancy, he began to use animal magnetism to alleviate the ills of local residents. Among the first he treated was a peasant named Victor Race who was suffering from a fever and congestion of the lungs.
When applying the magnetic passes to the man, Puységur noticed that Victor had fallen asleep. This sleep was not, however, a normal one, for he could still communicate with Puységur. When returning to his normal state of consciousness, Victor remembered nothing of what had happened. He noted that they all showed the same characteristics as the ones that Victor had demonstrated.
His work with Victor and subsequent investigations are described in the Mémoires. The alteration in consciousness between the state of magnetic sleep and the normal waking state, with its attendant amnesia, revealed, within human beings, a double or divided consciousness with two memory chains. The second edition and the third and most complete edition are supplemented by the Suite de Mémoires entry number which further develops the discoveries of the Mémoires.
Rapport des cures opérées à Bayonne par le magnétisme animal, adressé à M. Bayonne and Paris: Prault,72 pp. The Comte de Puységur, brother of the Marquis de Puységur, was second in command of the Regiment of Languedoc when the occurrences described in this pamphlet took place. He had learned the techniques of animal magnetism and found occasion to use them at this posting.
Here he mentions some sixty cures accomplished through animal magnetism. One of the most curious was that of a dog which had been injured by an angry soldier.
The Comte de Puységur approached the animal, which seemed to be barely alive, and applied magnetic passes. The dog was restored to good health in the space of a few minutes. This seems to be the first example in the literature of animal magnetism of the application of magnetic healing to an animal. On y a joint une réponse au Mémoire qui paroit ici pour la première fois. London and Paris: Berlin,pp. He had been cured by a mesmerist when traditional medicine had failed to help him.
He addresses some well-considered questions to the members of the commission of the Société Royale de Médecine. Padua: n. Haye: Libraires Associés, Van Swinden was an eminent physicist and first president of the Royal Institute of the Netherlands.
This collection contains a section called Reflexions sur le magnétisme animal, et sur le système de M. The dating of this work is uncertain, but it is believed to be — Recherches et doutes sur le magnétisme animal. Thouret was a member of the Royal Society of Medicine in Paris and one of the leading spokesmen of the opposition of that society to animal magnetism and the teachings of Mesmer.
In this work Thouret claims that his main concern is not to examine the details of cures being performed by animal magnetism, but to trace the history of the theory and practice of animal magnetism. He nevertheless clearly sides with those who reject animal magnetism as an illusion.
Admitting that many persons of stature accept animal magnetism as an effective cure, Thouret uses his considerable erudition to show that such cures are not new and that Mesmer was simply the most recent of a long tradition of thinkers who posited a hidden power of nature that produces healing effects. He cites Paracelsus, Kircher, Maxwell, and Fludd as examples of men who held views similar to those of Mesmer.
After presenting summaries of some of the responses to his first Mémoire see entry number 18Thouvenal describes subsequent attempts to use the divining rod to seek water.
He points out that he has been charged by the king to investigate the mineral and medicinal waters of the realm. As in the first Mémoire, Thouvenel makes no mention of Mesmer and his own brand of animal magnetism, which by this time must have been known to him.
The work describes successful treatment of various illnesses by animal magnetism. In Two Parts. In this, the least memorable of his works on animal magnetism, Bell presents a confused physics of magnetism, animal magnetism, magnetic fluid, etc.
A satirical confession of wrongs by a fictitious member of the commission that condemned animal magnetism. Attributed to Bergasse. Observations de M. Here Bergasse announces the split that had opened between Mesmer and himself. It is valuable for the information it provides about contemporary events concerning the fortunes of animal magnetism. Supplément aux Observations de M. The constitution for the Societies of Harmony which were to be set up all over France. Examen du Compte rendu par M.
Thouret, sous botox after weight loss titre de Correspondance de la Société royale de médecins, relativement au magnétisme animal. Lyon: n. Testament politique de M. Leipzig and Paris: n. A pamphlet against Mesmer. The reference to a German original seems to be a literary fiction. Recherches sur la direction du fluide magnétique. De Bruno developed a theory of magnetic fluid that was similar to that of Mesmer whom he cites.
He posits one universal magnetic fluid, rather than many, which explains all physical phenomena. London and Paris: E. Oufroy,98 pp. Carra was a prolific writer in many fields, including that of physics. Carra gives his own somewhat convoluted physical and philosophical explanations about why this is so.
Aphorismes de M. Ouvrage mis au jour par M. Paris: M. The Aphorismes was a very popular book and went through many editions. De la philosophie corpusculaire, ou des connaissances et les procédés magnétiques chez les divers peuples. A wide ranging study of phenomena that are analogous to animal magnetism. The author covers everything from electricity and magnetism in the human body to the curative effects of music.
His speculations on the nature of sympathetic cures are particularly interesting. Notice historique sur les systèmes et les écrits anciens qui se rapportent au magnétisme animal. An attempt to trace the historical antecedents of animal magnetism. Delandine works along the same lines as those pursued in his De la philosophie corpusculaire entry number Lettre adressée par M. Thouret et imprimé au Louvre.
A work opposing the brand of animal magnetism being practiced in Lyon by a number of practitioners associated with Freemasonry, particularly those under the leadership of the Chevalier de Barberin. Grenoble: n. Bordeaux: n. Sommes versées entre les mains de monsieur Mesmer pour acquérir le droit de publier sa découverte. Éprémesnil contends that since he and others had paid Mesmer a good deal of money listed in detail in the pamphlet to teach them animal magnetism, they should now be able to teach it to the public.
Correspondance de M. Recueillie et publiée par MM. Libourne and Paris: n. He sees magnetic somnambulism as a state midway between waking and sleep, a state essentially the same as natural somnambulism, which had been widely recognized as a reality.
Fournel points out that the seemingly extraordinary phenomena associated with magnetic somnambulism, such as suggestibility and clairvoyance, have been noted for centuries in connection with natural somnambulism. Speaking of the sudden rise to popularity of magnetic somnambulism, he estimates the number of somnambulists in Paris and the provinces to be in the neighborhood of six thousand.
Fournel makes a strong case for accepting magnetic somnambulism as a genuine phenomenon which deserves further study. Mémoire pour M.
Charles Louis Varnier. Paris: Hérissant,68 pp. Remonstrances des malades aux médecins de la Faculté de Paris. A satirical treatise written in opposition to animal magnetism. The author uses the popular interest in animal magnetism to advertize the use of medicinal baths and other approaches such as exercise and music to treat illnesses.
However, there is very little about animal magnetism in the pamphlet. Its mention in the title was obviously just to arouse the curiosity of the reader.
Pour servir de réponse à un imprimé ayant pour titre: Sommes versées entre les mains de M. Mesmer pour acquérir le droit de publier sa découverte. Mesmer counters that it was explicitly stated in their agreement with him that the doctrine of animal magnetism remains his property and that only he can determine how it is to be propagated.
Del magnetismo animale, e degli effetti ad esso attribuiti nella cura delle umane infermità. Apparently the earliest Italian book on animal magnetism, and there are no references to it in any of the bibliographical sources for animal magnetism.
He begins with something of an apology for writing a book on the subject of animal magnetism, a subject which is of questionable merit. He points out that some French commissions had already dismissed it as a matter of imagination. But since there are people in Italy, at Piedmont, who are appareil pour retirer la cellulite practicing it, something needs to be written in response.
Mullatera examines the background of magnetic medicine in sixteenth- and seventeenth-century Europe, pointing out the similarity between the teachings of Mesmer and those of Paracelsus, Van Helmont and Fludd. For his contemporary sources he uses principally the reports of the commissions including that of Jussieu and the propositions of Mesmer.
He finds animal magnetism to be of no particular value as a method of cure and places it in the category of useless, fantastic medical treatments.
Paris and London: n. Through this work Puységur meant to supplement the findings of his monumental Mémoires of entry number Essai sur la théorie du somnambulisme magnétique. The first treatise to attempt to present a comprehensive theory of magnetic somnambulism. It was published in shortly after the essay of Fournel see entry numberwhich Tardy de Montravel knew and appreciated. Like Fournel, he notes that since its modest beginnings at Buzancy in the previous year, the phenomena of magnetic somnambulism could now be found in Paris, Strasbourg, and throughout all the provinces of France.
Tardy de Montravel had observed many somnambulists, but he bases his newly formulated theory of magnetic somnambulism chiefly on experiments he conducted with a certain Mademoiselle N. He found that she seemed to possess certain extraordinary abilities already noted in magnetic somnambulists by Puységur and others.
These qualities included the ability to diagnose her own illness and those of others and the ability to perceive clairvoyantly. He also states that his Mademoiselle N. He held that this sixth sense proceeded from the stomach area and that somnambulists could see and hear with their stomachs. In this he anticipated the writings of Petetin who made the same discovery in his work with hysterics see Petetin, Mémoire, entry number This work is one of the most important and influential early writings on magnetic somnambulism, being cited in nearly all treatises on the subject written before Extrait de la correspondance de la Société royale de médicine, relativement au magnétisme animal.
Paris: Imprimerie royale,74 pp. Valleton de Boissière, médecin à Bergerac, à M. Philadelphia: n. This journal originated in Strasbourg and was edited by Johann Lorenz Böckmann. Système raisonné du magnétisme universel. Mesmer que par M. Ostende: n. A member of the very active Lyon branch of Freemasonry and a friend of the celebrated philosopher Louis Claude de Saint-Martin —the Chevalier de Barberin developed a mystical and spiritualist type of animal magnetism that quickly influenced many practitioners in France.
The notion of a physical magnetic fluid was de-emphasized and a more psychological—even magical—view of animal magnetic action took its place. The magnetic passes were made without touching the body and there was much emphasis placed on magnetizing at a distance—even at very great distances. The importance of the will was emphasized, and the magnetizer was expected to be in tune with the patient in order sympathetically to diagnose and then heal the person.
Barberin rejected as harmful the convulsive crisis so often connected with magnetic cures, placing importance on the gentle crisis, the magnetic somnambulism of Puységur.
He also truly believed in the pronouncements of his magnetic somnambulists, both for their usefulness in the healing process and for their spiritual messages. A description of cures and other phenomena associated with the somnambulist Madame de La Breteniere. Cures faites par M. Le Cte. Sindic de la Société de Bienfaisance établie à Strasbourg.
Avec des notes sur les crises magnétiques appellées improprement somnambulisme. The Comte de Lutzelbourg learned to magnetize directly from Puységur and in this work the similarities in approach are apparent. Journal du traitement magnétique de la demoiselle N. The author develops at length his notion of a sixth sense which is brought into operation in the magnetic state.